In accordance with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, the Curriculum Focal Points (NCTM 2000, NCTM 2006) and the Common Core Standards for Mathematics, *Math Trailblazers* students are expected to become fluent with the addition and subtraction facts to 5 and develop strategies for the facts to 10.

In Kindergarten, students use benchmarked arrangements (e.g. fingers, dot cards, five frames, ten frames) to develop ways to arrange the quantities of five and ten. Games and problem-solving activities involving these benchmarked arrangements encourage students to develop strategies and then gain fluency with these arrangements. For example, during the Cover Up activity, students know there are five counters. Some of the counters are hidden and some are not. Students develop conceptual and counting strategies to determine how many are covered.