Founded by Howard Goldberg and Phil Wagreich in the 1970s, the TIMS Project remains at the forefront of current national efforts to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics and science in elementary schools. NSF funding of Goldberg and Wagreich’s work showed significant gains for students using their materials and teaching strategies (Goldberg, 1990). In the early 1990s, the team was awarded another NSF grant to develop a comprehensive mathematics curriculum based on the NCTM standards. This led to the first edition of *Math Trailblazers*, which was piloted and field-tested with NSF support.

Several research studies found that students in *Math Trailblazers* classrooms outperformed students in classrooms that were not using a standards-based math curriculum (Sconier, et. al, 2003; Kelso, et. al, 2003). Some also found that students in *Math Trailblazers* classrooms were better at problem solving and open-response cognitively demanding tasks than students in non-standards-based math classrooms.

The program has continued to evolve in response to changing standards and curriculum needs as the TIMS Project members and others continued to research implementation practices and student achievement.

## Resources

- Fisher, N. “A Teacher’s View of TIMS.” TIMS, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1988.
- Goldberg, Howard, and F. David Boulanger. “Science for Elementary School Teachers: A Quantitative Approach.”
*American Journal of Physics*49 (2), pp. 120–124, 1981. - Goldberg, H. and P. Wagreich. “A Model Integrated Mathematics and Science Program for the Elementary School.”
*International Journal of Educational Research*14 (2), pp. 193–214,1990. - Goldberg, H. and P. Wagreich. “Evaluation of a Model Integrated Mathematics Science Program for the Elementary School.” TIMS, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1988.
- Goldberg, H. and P. Wagreich. “Focus on Integrating Science and Math.”
*Science and Children*, 1989. - Goldberg, H. and P. Wagreich. “Scientists in the Schoolroom.” University of Illinois at Chicago.
- Goldberg, H. and P. Wagreich. “Teaching Integrated Math and Science: A Curriculum and Staff Development Project for the Elementary School.” TIMS, University of Illinois at Chicago.
- Isaacs, A.C., P. Wagreich, and M. Gartzman. “The Quest for Integration: School Mathematics and Science.”
*American Journal of Education*, 106(1), pp. 179–206, 1997. - Marshall, A.M., Castro Superfine, A., and R. Canty, “Instructional Strategies Used to Promote Representational Competence in a First Grade Classroom.”
*Teaching Children Mathematics*, (2010). *Math Trailblazers Research and Revision Study Annual Report to the National Science Foundation*. June 5, 2007.