In accordance with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, the Curriculum Focal Points (NCTM 2000, NCTM 2006) and the Common Core Standards for Mathematics, *Math Trailblazers* students are expected to be fluent with the multiplication and division facts by the end of third grade.

### Developing Math Facts

In third grade, students review their addition and subtraction facts and develop proficiency with the multiplication facts. Students use their addition facts to develop strategies and proficiency with the related subtraction facts. Students have been developing strategies for solving these facts since their early years and are fairly close to gaining or have gained proficiency. There is systematic review and assessment of the subtraction facts to maintain and increase proficiency and to learn to apply subtraction strategies to larger numbers. At this time, students also work on developing strategies for multiplication facts. Later, students review the multiplication facts to develop mental math strategies and gain fluency.

**Distributed Facts Practice.** Following research recommendations, students study and practice small groups of facts that can be found using similar strategies. See Figure 1 for distributed facts practice in Grade 3.

**Figure 1:** Distributed Facts Practice in Grade 3